A Christian newspaper in Malaysia may not use the word "Allah" to refer to God, a court has ruled, in a landmark decision on a matter that has fanned religious tension and raised questions over minority rights.
Monday's unanimous decision by three Muslim judges in Malaysia's appeals court overturned a 2009 ruling by a lower court that allowed the Malay language version of the newspaper the Herald to use the word Allah – as many Christians in Malaysia say has been the case for centuries.
"The usage of the word Allah is not an integral part of the faith in Christianity," chief judge Mohamed Apandi Ali said in the ruling. "The usage of the word will cause confusion in the community."
The government argued in the case that the word Allah is specific to Muslims and that the then-home minister's decision in 2008 to deny the newspaper permission to print it was justified on the basis of public order.
Lawyers for the Catholic paper had argued that the word Allah predates Islam and had been used extensively by Malay-speaking Christians in Malaysia's part of Borneo island for centuries. They say they will appeal to Malaysia's highest court.
About 200 Muslims outside the court in the administrative capital Putrajaya greeted the decision with shouts of "Allahu Akbar" (God is Greatest).
"As a Muslim, defending the usage of the term Allah qualifies as jihad. It is my duty to defend it," said Jefrizal Ahmad Jaafar, 39.
Christians in Indonesia and much of the Arab world use the word without opposition from Islamic authorities. Churches in the Borneo states of Sabah and Sarawak have said they will continue to use the word regardless of the ruling.
The paper won a judicial review of the home minister's decision in 2009, triggering an appeal from the federal government.
Ethnic and religious tensions in Malaysia has been high since May's polarising election, in which the long-ruling coalition was deserted by urban voters, including many ethnic Chinese.
In recent months, prime minister Najib Razak has sought to consolidate his support among majority ethnic Malays, who are Muslim by law, and secure the backing of traditionalists ahead of a crucial ruling party assembly this month.
His new government – dominated by his Malay-based United Malays National Organisation – has introduced steps to reinvigorate a decades-old affirmative action policy for ethnic Malays, reversing liberal reforms.
Ethnic Malays make up 60% of Malaysia's 28m people, with Chinese accounting for more than a quarter and ethnic Indians also forming a substantial minority. Christians account for about 9%./The Guardian/