For the fifth year running, Real Madrid and Barcelona are the world's two richest clubs, according to the study carried out by the Football Money League, in conjunction with Deloitte. The document looks at financial data of all clubs participating in the 2012-13 season.
Last season, Real Madrid had a turnover of €518.9 million, around 1.2% more than the previous 2011-12 season. The revenue can be broken down in the following way: €119 million in ticket sales; €188.3 million in TV rights; and €211.6 million in advertising, sponsorship and merchandising.
Despite a lower growth rate in turnover than in recent years, Real Madrid is the club with the highest revenues in the world for the ninth year running, breaking the previous record held by Manchester United (who topped the ranking from 1996-97 to 2003-2004). What's more, Madrid has increased its advantage of the second placed Barça, the difference rising from €29.6 million for last season to this year's gap of €36.3 million.
Barcelona finds itself in second place for the fifth year running, with revenues peaking at €482.6 million. The Catalan club made €117.6 million from ticket sales, €188.2 million in TV rights, and €176.8 million from advertising, sponsorship and merchandising. Atlético de Madrid joins Real Madrid and Barcelona once more as one of the world's Top 20 clubs with the highest revenues, returning to the fold this year following its absence since the 2009/10 season.
The most notable increases in this year's ranking go to Bayern Munich and Paris Saint-Germain. The German club has seen its revenue rise by 17% (to €431.2 million) thanks to its recent sporting achievements, overtaking Manchester United and moving up into third position. Curiously, this is the first time in the reports 17-year history that the English club hasn't made it into the top three.
Paris Saint-Germain has moved up five places into fifth overall, which is the club's highest ranking ever, with an 81% increase in revenue (totalling €398.8 million). Almost two thirds of that figure (€254.7 million) is from advertising, sponsorship and merchandising, the largest percentage of turnover for this category in the entire history of the report.
In addition, the report studies the relative positioning of the top 20 clubs in social media networks in relation to the number of followers. Once again, Real Madrid and Barcelona are in first and second place. But on this occasion, Barcelona tops the ranking with 52.4 million followers on Facebook and 10.9 million on Twitter, whilst Real Madrid has a total following of 49.1 million on Facebook and 9.9 million on Twitter (based on figures taken at 17 January, 2014).